I recently began writing some lectures for an online course — I’ll talk more about the nature of the course in next week’s post. The broad topic is geometry, of course a favorite — and the specific topic for this unit is *Triangles.*

You can’t talk about triangles without talking about the Pythagorean Theorem. Part of my job is also to compose problems for the lectures as well as for quizzes and exams, and to my surprise, I came up with a few interesting ones. So I thought I’d share them with you. I am always a fan of sharing mathematics as it happens!

The questions I wrote are based on the following parameterization of Pythagorean Triples: Given positive integers and then

is a Pythagorean Triple. This parameterization generates all *primitive* Pythagorean Triples — that is, triples whose sides share no common factor. But it is not possible to get for example, using this parameterization. Of course is just three times the triple therefore, if you can generate all primitive Pythagorean Triples, you can take multiples of them to generate *all* Pythagorean Triples.

I thought of my first problem walking down the sidewalk going to lunch the other day. The simplest Pythagorean Triple, has side lengths which are in arithmetic progression. What other Pythagorean Triples have this property?

The simplest way to approach this is to parameterize such a triple by where is the smallest integer in the arithmetic progression and is the common difference. Since the triangle is a right triangle, we must have

which we may rewrite as

Now this factors:

resulting in solutions or We did assume that so we eliminate the solution Note that this would generate the triple and in fact But one side length is zero and another is negative, so no triangle is possible with these side lengths.

What about the solution ? Here, we get

which you can observe is just a multiple of the primitive Pythagorean Triple

The conclusion? The only Pythagorean Triples possible whose side lengths are in arithmetic progression are multiples of the right triangle.

I really didn’t know the answer would come out so nicely — but since the algebra involved was fairly straightforward, I thought I could include this as a non-routine example of an application of the Pythagorean Theorem at the high school level.

The previous problem was part of a lecture. The next problem was written as a possible exam question for teachers; once I realized I had more than one interesting problem, I thought there would be enough for a blog post….

I was just looking for interesting patterns in Pythagorean Triples, and noticed that with the triangle, the area and perimeter were both A coincidence? Were there other triangles with this property?

Of course there had to be finitely many — as the side lengths get larger, the area gets larger faster than the perimeter, as the area is essentially a quadratic function, while the perimeter is essentially a linear function. So how many others are there? Make a mental note of your guess before reading further….

We begin by parameterizing by

the factor of is necessary since the two-variable version generates all *primitive* Pythagorean Triples, but not necessarily *all* Pythagorean Triples.

Setting the perimeter and area equal to each other results in

Cancelling out factors of and results in

This equation clearly has just three solutions, since one of the factors must be and the other two factors must be

None is particularly difficult; let’s take them one at a time. When then so that Substituting back into the parameterization, we obtain the Pythagorean Triple which is the triple

When then so that This generates a new Pythagorean Triple,

Finally, when then and so that the Pythagorean Triple is generated. Of course this is just a duplicate of the first solution.

Surprised that there was just one more solution? I was! It was such a nice, straightforward solution, that I couldn’t help but include it.

There was a third problem which I liked, but the algebra was a little too intense — there was a nice geometrical solution, but it required ideas learned later on in the course. So here it is if you want a challenge: suppose you are given two right triangles, and you know that their perimeters and areas are the same. Prove that they are congruent.

I think you might enjoy solving this purely algebraically. I did like it so much, though, that I included a simpler version in one of my lectures: suppose you are given two right triangles, and you know that their hypotenuses are both of length and that their perimeters are equal. Prove that the triangles are congruent.

To be honest, I never knew I’d find problem solving with the Pythagorean Theorem so interesting. It’s nice to know that there is *always *more geometry to learn! Even with something as apparently simple as the venerable Pythagorean Theorem….